Characteristics of lower extremity ischaemia: This is a disease affecting the arteries in the lower extremities, which leads to their narrowing or occlusion. The most common cause of occlusion or narrowing of the arteries (lower extremity ischaemia) is atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), thrombus (blood clot), Buerger's disease and arterial vasoconstriction due to damage to the autonomic nerves that regulate the vascular lumen.
In the first, latent phase, lower extremity ischaemia patients do not experience any difficulties, but they have cold acral regions in the second phase, and experience intermittent claudication, which resolves when the patient stops and takes a rest, the pain goes away and the patient continues walking. Trophic changes may occur. Persistent pain in the extremity occurs in the third stage, while in the fourth and last stage, the condition of extremity perfusion becomes critical, with frequent muscle jerks and cramps. The patient is at risk of tissue necrosis, which first appears on the periphery of the extremities. The main risk factors for lower extremity ischaemia are smoking, lack of exercise, increased age, mental stress, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes and others. Lower extremity ischaemia requires professional vascular examination and the early initiation of treatment according to the stage and location of the disease (elimination of risk factors, exercise, early treatment of minor injuries, vasodilatory therapy, anticoagulant therapy, angioplasty, embolectomy ... up to amputation of the affected extremity).